Date Full Report Received


Date Abstract Report Received



Primary Investigator:

The purpose of the current study was to identify whether the daily addition of a protein-rich (pork-based) breakfast leads to beneficial, long term improvements in appetite, glucose control, and body weight management in ‘breakfast skipping’ young people.  To do this, 54 overweight/obese ‘breakfast skipping’ adolescents were randomly assigned to a normal-protein (cereal-based) breakfast group, a high protein (pork-based) breakfast group, or a control group.  For 12 weeks, the breakfast groups were provided with breakfast meals to consume each day, whereas the control group continued to skip breakfast.  Perceived appetite and satiety; daily, continuous glucose monitoring; daily food intake; body weight; and body composition were measured pre and post-study.  The study showed that the daily addition of a high protein breakfast prevented the increase in fat mass over the 12 week period compared to skipping breakfast.  Potential mechanisms include the observed increases in appetite control and satiety, leading to reductions in daily intake and evening snacking compared to skipping breakfast.  The high protein breakfast also led to improved glucose control over the 12-week period.  When comparing the normal protein and high protein breakfast groups, the high protein breakfast led to greater reductions in daily intake, particularly reduced carbohydrates, as well as greater increases in appetite control and satiety.  In summary, the daily addition of breakfast, particularly a protein-rich, pork-based breakfast, beneficially improves appetite control and satiety; glucose control; and food intake regulation in overweight/obese ‘breakfast skipping’ adolescents.   Further, this dietary strategy may improve body weight management through the prevention of weight/body fat gain in young people.  The study findings provide the pork industry with novel, practical evidence supporting the role of a protein-rich breakfast including high-quality lean pork as a key component of daily healthy eating, leading to improved body weight management in young people.  For correspondence: Heather J. Leidy, PhD; University of Missouri, Dept. of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology; email:  leidyh@missouri.edu.