Date Full Report Received


Date Abstract Report Received



Primary Investigator:

Our objective was to summarize the current research on the effect of various washes, rinses, sprays, and steam against Salmonella on pork carcasses or parts of pork carcasses with the skin on. In January 2015, we searched the scientific literature and the bibliographies of 24 review articles. This search identified 4001 references. These were assessed for relevance by two reviewers. In all, 14 studies were found to be relevant and to contain extractable data. Five of these studies were conducted in commercial abattoirs. The following treatments were examined: citric acid + steam, steam + ultrasound, saline (saltwater), water + acetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, distilled water, water (at various temperatures), stannous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, trisodium phosphate, sodium hypochlorite, lactic acid, and acetic acid. There was little evidence of a consistent positive or negative effect of washes containing acid compared to washes containing only water. There was also no consistently positive effect of using warm or hot water or steam compared to cooler water. There was no strong evidence that any one treatment regime (concentration and temperature of acid treatment, application of hot water vs application of cooler water) was clearly superior to others for the control of Salmonella on skin-on pork carcasses. The most consistent finding was a positive effect of acid treatments on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses; however, this was based on the results from the individual studies. It was not possible to combine the results across the different studies to produce a summary measure of effectiveness because the treatment protocols differed too much from study to study (e.g. different doses and durations of treatment, some studies measured prevalence of Salmonella as an outcome, some measured concentration; some studies applied Salmonella to the carcasses prior to treatment, other studies were of naturally contaminated carcasses).