#19-151

Complete

Category

Date Full Report Received

01/13/2020

Date Abstract Report Received

01/13/2020

Investigation

Institution:
Primary Investigator:

Pork is an essential food in the U.S. and many other countries worldwide. The annual global pork consumption is at approximately 118 metric kilotons. Childhood and adult obesity has become a leading public health concern in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the past few decades, the obesity prevalence more than doubled among U.S. adults and tripled among children.
Given the profound nutritional implications of pork consumption, it remains unclear about the effect of pork intake on people’s weight management and body composition (e.g., body fat and lean body mass). Findings from previous studies are scarce and mixed-some observational studies documented pork consumption to be positively correlated with weight gain, whereas some controlled trials reported either a null effect or an inverse relationship. This study systematically identified and synthesized scientific evidence on pork consumption in relation to body weight and composition. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in 5 scientific databases. We performed statistical analysis to estimate the effect of pork consumption on body weight and composition. A total of 13 studies (i.e., five randomized controlled trials, two randomized crossover trials, four cross-sectional studies, and two longitudinal studies) met the pre-specified eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Among the experimental studies without daily total energy intake restrictions, pork intake was associated with a reduction in body weight by 0.86 kg and body fat percentage by 0.77%, whereas pork intake was not associated with change in lean mass. Among the experimental studies with energy restrictions, pork intake was associated with a reduction in body weight by 5.56 kg, lean mass by 1.50 kg, and fat mass by 6.60 kg. Among the observational studies, pork intake was not associated with overweight status. In conclusion, findings on pork consumption in relation to body weight/composition differed by study design. Future experimental studies based on representative samples are warranted to examine the effect of fresh and lean pork consumption on body weight and composition among the general population and by subgroups.

Contact information: Dr. Ruopeng An, email: anruopeng1118@gmail.com

Key Findings:
• We systematically reviewed literature on pork consumption and body weight/composition
• Thirteen studies (7 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) were included
• Pork intake reduced body weight/fat percent in trials without daily kcal restriction
• Pork intake reduced body weight & lean/fat mass in trials with daily kcal restriction
• Pork intake was not associated with overweight status in observational studies