CategorySwine Health - General Disease
Date Full Report Received01/06/2014
Date Abstract Report Received01/06/2014
InvestigationInstitution: The Ohio State University Research Foundation (OSURF)
Primary Investigator: Mahesh Khatri
Co-Investigators: Renukaradhya Gourapura
Funded ByNational Pork Board
Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute respiratory viral disease of swine. The causative agent swine influenza virus (SIV) has been widely prevalent in the US swineherds. Control of influenza outbreaks among herds and prevention of possible transmission of zoonotic SIV to humans is possible through protection of swineherds using potent vaccines. Current available vaccines are not highly efficacious due to the co-circulation of genetically variant viruses in the swine populations. Additionally, swine respiratory tract epithelial cells express receptor which facilitates simultaneous infection of both avian and mammalian influenza viruses; thus, pigs could be the potential source for the generation of novel new reassortant strains of influenza viruses. Therefore, in this study we made an attempt to develop an inactivated effective vaccine against SIV, aimed to reduce the economic losses to pig producers. We have demonstrated that by activating pig invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in the respiratory tract using an iNKT cell specific adjuvant, -Galctosylceramide (-GalCer), coadministered with a UV-inactivated SIV-H1N1 vaccine significantly reduce the burden of homologous virus infection. However, when pigs were vaccinated with a bivalent (SIV-H1N1 and H3N2) inactivated influenza virus vaccine coadministered with two iNKT cell adjuvants together twice intranasally, there was an increased shedding of pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus in the nasal discharge and its load in the lungs; immunologically, associated with dampened anti-viral immunity. Next, we tested poly I:C as mucosal adjuvant with bivalent inactivated vaccine. Maternal antibody positive pigs immunized twice with Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated vaccine provided protection against antigenic variant H1N1 and heterologous H1N2 virus challenge.